Glossary

A

ACD

Acronym for automated call distributor

Array slicing

In computer programming, array slicing is an operation that extracts a subset of elements from an array and packages them as another array, possibly in a different dimension from the original

Assertion

In computer programming, an assertion is a predicate connected to a point in the program that always should evaluate to true at that point in code execution

Associative array

An associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type composed of a collection of (key, value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection

Attribute–value pair

An attribute–value pair is a fundamental data representation in computing systems and applications

Audio chunk

A 20 ms 16-bit PCM audio frame.

Audio frame

An audio frame is a data record that contains one sample for each of the channels available in an audio signal

Automated code review

Automated code review software checks source code for compliance with a predefined set of rules or best practices

AWS

Acronym for Amazon Web Services

B

Balanced scorecard

A balanced scorecard is a report that can be used by managers to keep track of the execution of activities by the staff within their control

Bandwidth

In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path

Base64

Base64 is a group of similar binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation

Basic access authentication

Basic access authentication is an HTTP authentication method that allows the transmission of user ID and password credentials

Bastion host

A bastion host is a special-purpose computer on a network specifically designed and configured to withstand attacks

Bit rate

In telecommunications and computing, a bit rate is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time

Black-box testing

Black-box testing is a method of software testing that examines the functionality of an application

BLOB

Acronym for Binary Large OBject

Business logic

In computer software, business logic is the part of the program that encodes the real-world business rules that determine how data can be created, stored, and changed

C

Call transfer

A call transfer is a process of relocating an inbound call to another phone or messaging system

CC

Acronym for Contact Center or Call Center

Change control

Change control is a process used to ensure that changes to a product or system are introduced in a controlled and coordinated manner

CLI

Acronym for command-line interface

CNAME record

A Canonical Name record is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System that maps one domain name to another

Codec

A codec is a computer program which encodes or decodes a digital data stream or signal

Communication protocol

A communication protocol is a system of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information

Concatenated SMS

A concatenated SMS is used to overcome the limitation on the number of characters that can be sent in a single SMS text message transmission (which is usually 160)

Conference call

A conference call is a telephone call in which someone talks to several people at the same time

CPU

Acronym for central processing unit

CSRF

Acronym for cross-site request forgery

D

DAST

A dynamic application security testing tool is a program which communicates with a web application through the web front-end in order to identify potential security vulnerabilities in the web application and architectural weaknesses

Data anonymization

Data anonymization is a type of information sanitization whose intent is privacy protection. It is the process of removing personally identifiable information from data sets, so that the people whom the data describe remain anonymous

Data buffer

In computer science, a data buffer is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another

Data preprocessing

Data preprocessing is a data mining and machine learning technique that involves transforming raw data into an understandable format

DDD

Acronym for Direct distance dialing

Django

Django is a Python-based free and open-source web framework

DNS

Acronym for Domain Name System

Document classification

Document classification is the task of assigning a document to one or more classes or categories

DOM

Acronym for Document Object Model

DPA

Acronym for data processing agreement

DPO

Acronym for Data Protection Officer

E

E2EE

Acronym for end-to-end encryption

EMI

Acronym for External Machine Interface

Empty string

In computing, an empty string is a string of length zero

Energy

Energy (physics)

The amount of energy carried by a sound wave

Entity dictionary

An entity dictionary is a collection of named entities

Entity linking

In natural language processing, entity linking (also referred to as named-entity linking, named-entity disambiguation, named-entity recognition and disambiguation, or named-entity normalization) is the task of assigning a unique identity to entities mentioned in text

Environment variable

An environment variable is a dynamic-named value that can affect the way running processes will behave on a computer

ETL

Acronym for Extract, transform, load

F

Fact table

In data warehousing, a fact table consists of the measurements, metrics or facts of a business process

Focus_computing

Focus

In computing, focus indicates the act of selecting an element of a graphical user interface

FQDN

Acronym for fully qualified domain name

G

G.711

G.711 is an ITU-T standard for audio companding

Ghost call

A ghost call is a telephone call for which, when the recipient of the call answers, there is no one on the other end of the call

Git

Git is a distributed version-control system for tracking changes in any set of files

Grafana

Grafana is a multi-platform open source analytics and interactive visualization web application

GUI

Acronym for graphical user interface

H

Hardening

In computing, hardening is the process of securing a system by reducing its surface of vulnerability

HTML attribute

HTML attributes are special words used inside the opening tag to control the tag's behaviour

HTML element

An HTML element is an individual component of an HTML document or web page

HTTP method

HTTP method indicates the desired action to be performed on the identified resource

HTTP referer

A referer is an HTTP header field that identifies the address of the webpage that linked to the resource being requested

HTTP User agent

A user agent is an HTTP string used for content negotiation

Hybrid

Virtual agent + Human agent

I

Identifier - computer languages

Identifier (computer languages)

In computer languages, identifiers (IDs) are lexical tokens that name entities

Inbound

Initiated by the customer

Instant messaging

Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet

Interactive banner

An interactive banner is a web banner that allows viewers to interact with it

Invariant

In computer science, an invariant is a logical assertion that is always held to be true during a certain phase of execution

ISO 8601

ISO 8601 is an international standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data

IVR

Acronym for Interactive Voice Response

J

JavaScript

JavaScript is an object-oriented computer programming language

Join_SQL

Join (SQL)

An SQL join clause combines columns from one or more tables in a relational database

JSON

Acronym for JavaScript Object Notation

JWT

Acronym for JSON Web Token

K

kbps

Acronym for kilobit per second

L

LAN

Acronym for local area network

Let's Encrypt

Let's Encrypt is a non-profit certificate authority

M

Machine to machine

Machine to machine (M2M) is direct communication between devices using any communications channel

Mbps

Acronym for megabit per second

Media type

A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet

Metadatum

A metadatum is a piece of information describing a piece of data

ML

Acronym for machine learning

ms

Acronym for millisecond

MSISDN

Acronym for Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number

Multitier architecture

In software engineering, a multitier architecture is a client–server architecture in which presentation, application processing and data management functions are physically separated

Music on hold

Music on hold (MOH) is the business practice of playing recorded music to fill the silence that would be heard by telephone callers who have been placed on hold

Mutator method

In computer science, a mutator method is a method used to control changes to a variable. They are also widely known as setter methods. Often a setter is accompanied by a getter (also known as an accessor), which returns the value of the private member variable.

N

Named entity

In information extraction, a named entity is a real-world object, such as persons, locations, organizations, products, etc., that can be denoted with a proper name.

Named-entity recognition

Named-entity recognition is a subtask of information extraction that seeks to locate and classify named entity mentions in unstructured text into pre-defined categories such as person names, organizations, locations, time expressions, quantities, monetary values, percentages, etc.

NAT

Acronym for network address translation

NLP

Acronym for natural language processing

Non-speech audio chunk

An audio chunk for which the VAD processor returned a false value, or its energy value is < energy_threshold (i.e., silence or background noise)

NTP

Acronym for Network Time Protocol

Null (SQL)

Null (or NULL) is a special marker used in Structured Query Language to indicate that a data value does not exist in the database

Null pointer

In computing, a null pointer has a value reserved for indicating that the pointer or reference does not refer to a valid object

Nullable type

In computing, a nullable type allows a value to be set to the special value NULL instead of the usual possible values of a data type

O

OAuth

OAuth is an open standard for access delegation

Opaque data type

An opaque data type is a data type whose concrete data structure is not defined in an interface

OTP

Acronym for one-time password

outbound

Initiated by Enuan Platform

P

PATH variable

PATH is an environment variable on Unix-like operating systems, DOS, OS/2, and Microsoft Windows, specifying a set of directories where executable programs are located

Payload

In computing and telecommunications, the payload is the part of transmitted data that is the actual intended message (headers and metadata are sent only to enable payload delivery)

PBX

Acronym for private branch exchange

PCM

Acronym for pulse-code modulation

Penetration test

A penetration test is an authorized simulated cyberattack on a computer system, performed to evaluate the security of the system

Personal data

Personal data, also known as personal information or personally identifiable information, is any information relating to an identifiable person

Pointer

In computing, a pointer is a graphical image on a display device that echoes the movements of a pointing device

POST

POST is a request method supported by HTTP

PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is a free and open-source relational database management system

pps

Acronym for packets per second, a measure of throughput

Primary key

A primary key is a special relational database table column (or combination of columns) designated to uniquely identify all table records

Production environment

Production is the deployment environment where changes go "live" and that users directly interact with

Q

QR code

A QR code is a machine-readable code consisting of an array of black and white squares, typically used for storing URLs or other information for reading by the camera on a smartphone

R

RAM

Acronym for random-access memory

RCS

Acronym for Rich Communication Services

React

React is an open-source, front end, JavaScript library for building user interfaces or UI components

Replay attack

A replay attack (also known as playback attack) is a form of network attack in which a valid data transmission is maliciously or fraudulently repeated or delayed

RSA

RSA is a public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission

S

Sample - sound wave

A sample is a numeric value representing the amplitude of the sound waveform at a single moment in time

Sankey diagram

A sankey diagram is a type of flow diagram in which the width of the arrows is proportional to the flow rate

SAST

Static application security testing is part of technologies used to secure software by reviewing the source code of the software to identify sources of vulnerabilities

SCP

Acronym for Secure copy protocol

SDK

Acronym for software development kit

SFTP

Acronym for SSH File Transfer Protocol

SHA-2

Acronym for Secure Hash Algorithm 2

Silent call

A silent call is a telephone call in which the caller does not speak when the call is answered

SIP

Acronym for Session Initiation Protocol

SIP trunking

SIP trunking is a Voice over Internet Protocol technology and streaming media service based on the Session Initiation Protocol by which Internet telephony service providers deliver telephone services and unified communications to customers equipped with SIP-based private branch exchange and unified communications facilities

SIP URI scheme

The SIP URI scheme is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) scheme for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) multimedia communications protocol

SLA

Acronym for service-level agreement

SMPP

Acronym for Short Message Peer-to-Peer

SMS

Acronym for short message service

SMSC

Acronym for Short Message Service Center

SNR

Acronym for signal-to-noise ratio

Social media

Social media are interactive technologies that allow the creation or sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks

Software framework

In computer programming, a software framework is a platform where common code with generic functionality can be selectively specialized or overridden by users

Speech audio chunk

An audio chunk for which the VAD processor returned a true value, and its energy value is ≥ energy_threshold

Speech recognition

Speech recognition is the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers

Speech synthesis

Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech

SSH

Acronym for Secure Shell

SSL

Acronym for Secure Sockets Layer

STT

Acronym for speech-to-text, also known as automatic speech recognition (ASR)

Substring

A substring is a contiguous sequence of characters within a string.

Superuser

In computing, the superuser is a special user account used for system administration

T

TBD

Acronym for to be determined

Throughput

In the context of communication networks, throughput is the rate of successful message delivery over a communication channel

TLS

Acronym for Transport Layer Security

Tracing

In software engineering, tracing involves a specialized use of logging to record information about a program's execution

Tree view

A tree view or an outline view is a graphical control element that presents a hierarchical view of information

TTS

Acronym for text-to-speech

U

UCP

Acronym for Universal Computer Protocol

UID

Acronym for user identifier

unambiguous

Not open to more than one interpretation (also see this definition)

Unit of time

A unit of time is any particular time interval, used as a standard way of measuring or expressing duration

Unix time

Unix time is an approximation of the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), Thursday, 1 January 1970

UTC

Acronym for Coordinated Universal Time

UTF-8

UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.

V

VAD

Acronym for voice activity detection

Version control

In software engineering, version control is a class of systems responsible for managing changes to source code

Virtual assistant

A virtual assistant is a software agent that can perform tasks or services for an individual based on commands or question

Visual IVR

Acronym for Visual Interactive Voice Response

VoIP

Acronym for Voice over Internet Protocol

VPC

Acronym for virtual private cloud

VPN

Acronym for virtual private network

Vulnerability scanner

A vulnerability scanner is a computer program designed to assess computers, networks or applications for known weaknesses

W

WAV

Abbreviation for Waveform Audio File Format

Web chat

A web chat is a type of Internet online chat that allows users to communicate in real-time using easily accessible web interfaces

Web Messaging

Web Messaging allows documents to communicate with one another across different origins, or source domains while rendered in a web browser

Web service

A Web service is a software system for the interoperable machine-to-machine communication over a network

Webhook

A webhook is a method of augmenting or altering the behaviour of a web page, or web application, with custom callbacks

White-box testing

White-box testing is a method of software testing that tests internal structures or workings of an application

X